Standing Still

Persephone with her pomegranate. Dante Gabriel Rossetti – Proserpine (Oil on canvas, 1874) – Tate Gallery, London

This season’s solstice (Winter in the Northern hemisphere, Summer in the Southern), occurs at 04:48 UTC, December 22, 23:48 Eastern Standard Time (UTC-05:00), December 21.

Illumination of Earth by Sun at the southern solstice.
Etymology: Latin solstitium (sol “sun” + stitium, from sistere “to stand still”)

The name is derived from the Latin sol (sun) and sistere (to stand still), because at the solstices, the Sun stands still in declination; that is, its apparent movement north or south comes to a standstill.
Solstice, Wikipedia

We’ve had no clear winter here in NYC. It finally got “cold” over the weekend, with temperatures threatening frost, but not quite making. So far, Central Park has had the 3rd longest run of frost-free days in history, and we are within reach of breaking the record.

Dona nobis pacem / Let there be peace

This page has a little MIDI file which bangs out the tune so you can follow the score.

Related Content

2010: From Dark to Dark: Eclipse-Solstice Astro Combo
2009: Standing Still, Looking Ahead
2008: Stand Still / Dona Nobis Pacem
2007: Solstice (the sun stands still)


Wikipedia: Solstice

Extinct Plants of northern North America 2015

I’m limiting this list to northern North America for two reasons:

  1. Restricting this list geographically is in keeping with my specialization in plants native to northeastern North America.
  2. There are many more tropical plants, and plant extinctions, than I can manage; for example, Cuba alone has lost more plant species than I’ve listed on this blog post. 
If you have additions to this list, please let me know, and provide a link which I can research.
  • Astilbe crenatiloba, Roan Mountain false goat’s beard, Roan Mountain, Tennessee, 1885
  • Narthecium montanum, Appalachian Yellow Asphodel, East Flat Rock Bog, Henderson County, North Carolina, before 2004?
  • Neomacounia nitida, Macoun’s shining moss, Belleville, Ontario, 1864
  • Orbexilum macrophyllum, bigleaf scurfpea, Polk County, North Carolina, 1899
  • Orbexilum stipulatum, large-stipule leather-root, Falls-of-the-Ohio scurfpea, Rock Island, Falls of the Ohio, KY, 1881
  • Thismia americana, banded trinity, Lake Calumet, IL, 1916

Extinct in the wild (IUCN Red List code EW)

  • Franklinia alatamaha, Franklin Tree
  • Extinct versus Extirpated

    I often come across misuse of the word “extinct,” as in: native plant extinct in New York City.

    • “Extinct” means globally extinct. No living specimens exist anywhere in the world, not even in cultivation. 
    • “Extirpated” means locally extinct, while the species persists in other populations outside of the study area. To correct the above example: extirpated in New York City. Any regional Flora lists many extirpated species.

    When a species is known only from one original or remaining population, as those listed above were, loss of that population means extinction for the species. In this case, extirpation and extinction are the same thing.

    Another category is “extinct in the wild,” when the species still exists under cultivation, like an animal in a zoo. A famous example of this is Franklinia alatamaha.

    Related Content

    Extinct Plants of northern North America, 2014-11-30


    Wikipedia: List of extinct plants: Americas
    IUCN Red List: List of species extinct in the wild
    The Sixth Extinction: Recent Plant Extinctions
    Extinct and Extirpated Plants from Oregon (PDF, 5 pp)

    Former BBG Herbarium property for sale

    Want to build next to the Brooklyn Botanic Gardens? This might be your one and only chance.
    Development Site Adjacent to Brooklyn Botanic Gardens Hits Market, Terrance Cullen, Commercial Observer, 2015-09-10

    More like building on the grave of BBG’s science and research mission. This is not just “walking distance from the Botanic Gardens;” it’s the former site of Brooklyn Botanic Garden’s Herbarium, known as BKL.

    The 22,000-square-foot plot at 111 Montgomery Street in the Crown Heights section of Brooklyn is hitting the market for a potential developer looking to likely build condominiums.

    According to the NYC Department of Buildings, the property is 109-111 Montgomery Street. BBG quietly announced almost a year ago that they would be “disposing” of:

    … BBG’s building at 109 Montgomery Street, which has foundation problems and is not cost effective to repair.

    The disposition is expected to generate significant revenue …
    BBG Announces Disposition of Montgomery Street Building, 2014-10-24

    Indeed. The Observer article gives “an asking price in the mid-$40 million.”

    BBG’s October announcement made no mention of the herbarium. In their “Freedom is Slavery” double-speak, they claim the sale as “the first step in reintroducing a science research program at the Garden.” “Reintroducing” because BBG removed science from their mission in September 2013, with no announcement, just a month after firing their remaining science staff,

    BBG planned to transfer the herbarium – again, without announcement – out of state, either to the Missouri Botanical Garden (MOBOT) or the Smithsonian. This would have been a disaster for the natural history and cultural heritage of New York state. It was only through last-minute, behind-the-scenes advocacy and intervention in March of this year that the New York Botanical Garden (NYBG) instead accepted the contents on loan. That move was completed in April.

    In June of this year, BBG sold the property to the holding company, 109 Montgomery LLC, for $24.5 million.

    According to the president of the brokerage handling the sale of the herbarium property, “There’s a real need for families moving into Brooklyn to buy apartments within the $1 to $2 million range.” But no room for science, at any price.

    Related Content

    Brooklyn Botanic Garden’s Slash and Burn “Campaign for the 21st Century”, 2013-08-23
    Brooklyn Botanic Garden removes science from its mission, 2014-01-20


    Bombus fervidus, golden northern bumblebee, yellow bumblebee

    Sunday, while cutting up edited plants into my compost tumbler, I caught sight of something unusual out of the corner of my eye. It turned out to be Bombus fervidus, golden northern bumblebee, or simply, the yellow bumblebee.
    Bombus fervidus, golden northern bumblebee, on Vernonia noveboracensis, New York ironweed, in my garden, August 2015

    This is at least the 21st bee species I’ve found in my garden. And this brings to 20, or more, the number of new insect species I’ve identified in my garden this year alone.

    Bombus fervidus, golden northern bumblebee

    Related Content

    Flickr photo set
    All my bee photo albums


    BugGuide: Bombus fervidus, Golden Northern Bumble Bee
    Discover Life: Bombus fervidus
    Encyclopedia of Life: Bombus fervidus

    Garden Insect Species Records 2015

    2015-09-19: Added Homeosoma, observed 10 days ago and just identified, bringing the total to 23.
    2015-09-13: Two more Hymenoptera species identified from the last weekend in August: Bombus fervidus, golden northern bumblebee, and Gnamptopelta osidianator, an Ichneumon wasp. And a new Diptera species identified today: Hermetia illucens. That brings the number of species to 22.
    2015-07-12: Added two I’d forgotten about: Orius insidiosus, and Anthrenus verbasci. That brings the number of species to 19.

    These are the insect species I’ve discovered or identified in my garden for the first time this year.

    Hymenoptera – Bees

    • Bombus fervidus, golden northern bumblebee, yellow bumblebee, 2015-08-30
    • Ceratina calcarata, spurred ceratina, small carpenter bee
    • Cerceris, two different species, not identified down to species.
    • Nomada, cuckoo bee
    • Osmia pumila, mason bee
    • Stelis louisae, Megachilid bee, cleptoparasite of Megachile campanuelae and perhaps related bees

      Stelis louisae (ID correction welcomed) on Heliopsis helianthoides, smooth oxeye, false sunflower, in the front garden, July 2015

    Hymenoptera – Wasps

    • Gasteruption, carrot wasp
      Gasteruption, carrot wasp, on Zizia aurea, golden alexander, in my backyard, May 2015
    • Gnamptopelta obsdianator, Ichneumon wasp, spider wasp mimic, a parasitoid on Sphingid moth caterpillars, especially those feeding on Vitis, grape, hosts. 2015-08-31
    • Omalus, cuckoo wasp

    Coleoptera, Beetles

    • Anthrenus verbasci, varied carpet beetle
    • Coccinella septempunctata, seven-spotted lady-beetle (introduced)
    • Exomala orientalis, Oriental beetle (introduced)
      Exomala orientalis, Oriental beetle (introduced), on Rudbeckia, black-eyed susan, in the front yard, July 2015
    • Pyrrhalta viburni, Viburnum leaf beetle (invasive)
      Pyrrhalta viburni, viburnum leaf beetle (VLB), 3rd instar larva, feeding on Viburnum dentatum, arrowwood, from my backyard, May 2015

    Diptera, Flies

    • Allograpta obliqua, oblique syrphid fly
      Allograpta (obliqua or exotica), syphid fly, on stem in the front garden, June 2015
    • Hermetia illucens, black solder fly, a wasp mimic
    • Merodon equstris, Narcissus bulb fly (introduced)

    Hemiptera, True Bugs

    • Coelidia olitoria, leafhopper
    • Hormaphis hamamelidis, witchhazel cone gall aphid
    • Jalysus, stilt bug
    • Lygaeus kalmii, small milkweed bug. I have no observation records of this species in my garden before this year. This year, there are scores of them.
      Lygaeus kalmii, small milkweed bug, mating in my driveway, June 2015
    • Orius insidiosus, insidious flower bug


    • Chrysopidae, green lacewings, Neuroptera
      Chrysopidae, green lacewing, larva, on Rudbeckia, in the front garden, June 2015
    • Homeosoma, a Pyralid moth
      Caterpillar of Homeosoma, a Pyralid moth, feeding on disk flowers of Helianthus sp., sunflower, in my garden, September 2015

    Anthrenus verbasci, varied carpet beetle, and Orius insidiosus, insidous flower bug, on Erigeron, fleabane.
    Anthrenus (A. verbasci?), carpet beetle, and Orius insidiosus, insidious flower bug, on Erigeron, fleabane, growing as a weed in my garden, June 2015

    Related Content

    To be provided …


    Pyrrhalta viburni, viburnum leaf beetle (VLB)

    Pyrrhalta viburni, the viburnum leaf beetle, or VLB for short, is native to Europe. It was first discovered in North America barely two decades ago, in Maine in 1994. Both larvae and adults eat leaves. Our native Viburnum species are extremely vulnerable; they aren’t adapted to this species of leaf beetle. With ample food supply, and no native predators to control its spread, VLB has rapidly expanded its range since.

    The viburnum leaf beetle, Pyrrhalta viburni (Paykull), is an invasive, non-native beetle that first appeared in New York along Lake Ontario in 1996, and has steadily spread across the state and down the Hudson Valley. It is a voracious eater that can defoliate viburnum shrubs entirely. Plants may die after two or three years of heavy infestation, particularly when larvae strip plants after hatching out in spring followed by heavy adult feeding later in summer.
    Viburnum leaf beetle invading NYC?, Cornell Horticulture Blog, May 2009

    It’s been in New York City less than a decade. In Brooklyn, I first observed the damage on Viburnum dentatum, arrowwood, at the Brooklyn Botanic Garden in May 2012. Last year, I found it in Prospect Park; by May, arrowwoods there were shredded.
    Pyrrhalta viburni, Viburnum leaf beetle, on Viburnum dentatum, arrowwood, Prospect Park, Brooklyn, May 2014
    Pyrrhalta viburni, Viburnum leaf beetle, on Viburnum dentatum, arrowwood, Prospect Park, Brooklyn, May 2014
    Pyrrhalta viburni, Viburnum leaf beetle, on Viburnum dentatum, arrowwood, Prospect Park, Brooklyn, May 2014

    I’ve seen light damage on my large arrowwood for the past few years. I’ve suspected VLB, but never observed it. I’m ~1/2 mile south of Prospect Lake in Prospect Park, so it should be here. This Spring, I finally found it.

    Pyrrhalta viburni, viburnum leaf beetle (VLB), 3rd instar larva, feeding on Viburnum dentatum, arrowwood, from my backyard, May 2015
    Pyrrhalta viburni, viburnum leaf beetle (VLB), 3rd instar larva, feeding on Viburnum dentatum, arrowwood, from my backyard, May 2015

    Despite the fact I’ve made no special efforts to control or contain it, VLB has not gotten out of control on my single shrub. I have some hypotheses about why that might be.


    My specimen is a cultivar, sold as ‘Blue Muffin.’ I suspect the plants in Prospect Park are local ecotypes planted as part of the woodlands restorations. When we select cultivars for horticultural characteristics, we select away from ecological value. It could be that this cultivar has some natural resistance to VLB.


    The shredded arrowwoods in Prospect Park were growing in forest shade. Mine is growing in nearly full sun. The little damage I see on my shrub occurs only on the lower leaves; upper leaves don’t appear affected. From what I’ve read, this makes a difference, though the reasons are unclear.


    My specimen has never fruited well. I suspect this is due to the lack of arrowwoods in other gardens nearby. This low density could affect the ability of VLB to establish a viable population that can explode to the levels I’ve observed in Prospect Park.


    I specialize in gardening with native plants, and have lots of habitat in my smallish urban garden. There are likely many native predators existing in the landscape that can predate on VLB. I suspect the prevalence of natural predators in my garden have kept them in check the past few years.

    By planting a wide variety of native plants, especially plants from the Asteraceae and Apiaceae, we can provide shelter and food for these insects, keeping them around for when VLB emerges.

    Related Content

    Viburnum Leaf Beetle reaches New York City, 2009-05-28
    Viburnum dentatum, Arrowwood, 2009-04-20


    Viburnum leaf beetle invading NYC?, Cornell Horticulture Blog, 2009-05-22

    Predation by Podisus maculiventris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on Viburnum Leaf Beetle, Pyrrhalta viburni (Paykull) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Under Laboratory and Field Conditions, Gaylord Desurmont , Paul A. Weston, Environmental Entomology, Volume 37, Issue 5, pp. 1241 – 1251

    Viburnum leaf beetle, Department of Horticulture, Cornell University
    Viburnum Leaf Beetle – Pyrrhalta viburni, Maine Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Forestry

    What I’m About

    Notice anything different about me? Until a few minutes ago, the by-line at the header of this blog read:

    Adventures in Neo-Victorian, Wild, Shade, Organic and Native Plant Gardening, Garden Design, and Garden Restoration.

    It now reads:

    Urban Gardening with Native Plants

    This better communicates the focus of my interests and expertise than the “anything goes” byline it replaces.

    How I got here

    We bought our house and garden 10 years ago. I started this blog 9 years ago.

    The byline I just replaced reflected the experimental approach I was taking to having so much space to play with. Heirloom plants in the front yard, which might have been available to the original gardener of our home. Shade gardening because what urban gardener doesn’t have to deal with shade somewhere? Wild, because something has to be left uncultivated. And always organic gardening.

    I’ve gardened with native plants since my first garden in the East Village. Each of the 4 gardens I’ve worked on in New York City has incorporated native plants. When we bought our house 10 years ago, I had pretty much a blank slate to work with. I quickly decided that the backyard would be a woodland garden, populated with ephemerals, ferns, and others plants native to the forests of northeastern North America.

    Over time, I eliminated the major invasives I had inherited, including Rosa multifloraClematis terniflora, sweet autumn clematis (SAC), and Acer platanoides, Norway maple. I succeeded in transforming the backyard from the dustbowl I started with.

    I expanded the areas devoted to native plants. I took up part of the driveway so the “woodland” could expand into the “clearing” offered by the south side of the house. The front yard has enjoyed a similar transformation. I removed first one section of front lawn, then replaced most of the rest with native plants last year.

    My garden has been on tour four times, three times with NYC Wildflower Week. Last month, I spoke at the Long Island Botanical Society about my gardens, and the increasing number and variety of insect visitors I’ve observed and documented.

    As I’ve expanded the areas of native plants in my garden, I’ve narrowed the focus, specializing increasingly in species native to New York City. I’m growing nearly 100 NYC-native species. I’ve added another 70 species this year, and continue to expand the areas for them.

    All this diversity brings in countless species of insects, including dozens of bees and wasps. I’ve identified a half dozen new species in the garden just this Spring. Summer, the peak pollinator season, is just around the corner. I look forward to what else I will find this year.

    So, when people ask, I say: I specialize in urban gardening with native plants. This isn’t a limitation. I see no end to what I can discover and learn by doing so. And no end to the benefits this can bring to myself, my family, my community, and the region.

    Related Content

    All my Native Plants posts


    Native Plant Acquisitions: LINPI 2015 Plant Sale

    Saturday, June 13 was the last open day in 2015 for the Long Island Native Plant Initiative (LINPI) Plant Sale. I picked up another 13 species to add to my list, which has already grown this Spring to over 200 species of plants native to eastern North America. We’ll see how many of them survive my, um “gardening.”

    As with all the plants available through LINPI, all are local ecotypes propagated by NYC Parks’ Greenbelt Native Plant Center from wild populations on Long Island and Staten Island. It so happens all these species are also native to New York City.


    (or Asclepiadaceae, depending on taxonomy)

    Asclepias tuberosa, butterfly weed
    I bought a 6-pack of these from the LINPI Plant sale two years ago. They are blooming now. I bought a flat (6 x 6-packs = 36 plants) this time. I want to have larger groups of them in several sunny areas to see where they thrive.


    Eupatorium hyssopifolium, hyssop-leaved throughwort, hyssop-leaved boneset

    Eupatorium perfoliatum, common boneset, boneset thoroughwort
    This species is only found in wetlands (Wetland indicator status OBL/”obligate”), so I’m planting this in and around the garage, for runoff, and planters, where it will benefit from overflow from watering.

    Eupatorium serotinum, late-flowering thoroughwort
    This was listed incorrectly as Eutrochium serotinum on LINPI’s web site. This is the odd one out for nativity, which is challenged by some, e.g.: NEWFS.

    Solidago nemoralis, gray goldenrod
    One of the shade-tolerant goldenrods, I bought a flat of these to plant them all around the house as an experiment to see where/how they fare from sun to shade.

    Solidago speciosa, showy goldenrod


    Vaccinum macrocarpon, cranberry
    This is one of the species available on-site at the plant sale that wasn’t listed on LINPI’s web site. I already have two of these, one in each bog planter. I bought a 6-pack as an intentional duplicate. I planted 4 in the two bog planters I have. I need to fill in these planters so the squirrels won’t keep digging them out. As an experiment, I planted the other two nearby, alongside the garage, where they’ll get runoff from the roof and gutter downspout.


    Chamaecrista fasciculata, prairie senna, partridge pea, partridge sensitive-pea
    Lespedeza hirta
    Lespedeza virginica


    Hibiscus moscheutos, swamp rosemallow
    Another obligate wetland species, I planted this by the side of the garage to benefit from runoff from the roof, and to server as a backdrop for this mixed shrub-perennial bed.


    Panicum virgatum, switchgrass
    Sorghastrum nutans, indian grass
    Tridens flavus, purple top


    Rosa carolina, Carolina rose


    Cephalanthus occidentalis, buttonbush

    Related Content

    Other blog posts about my native plant garden


    Long Island Native Plant Initiative (LINPI) Plant Sale

    Ripley, 2000-2015

    Our Ripley died with us around 1:30 this morning.

    It’s still the middle of the night. We had an 8am appointment with the vet for an ultrasound exam to find out what was going on. Instead, I’ll be taking his body in for cremation.

    I need to try to get at least a few more hours sleep. I needed to write something first.

    We adopted him when he was almost 8 years old.

    He had a good seven years with us – almost half his life. He had lots of love.
    John & Ripley

    He loved to get brushed. He had a porch to watch the birds, and more love.
    Ripley and John, in mutual bliss

    So much love.
    John & Ripley mutually kissing each other

    We adopted his baby sister, Annie, to help keep him company, because two grown men weren’t enough for him.
    Greco-Roman Cat Wrestling

    He’s been in decline for a few months. This is the last photograph I took of him. Three weeks ago, when the weather had warmed up, I took him outside into the front yard. He wanted to wander around and I had to keep herding him back. It was the most active he’d been in weeks. Eventually, he let me brush him – which used to be his favorite activity – and he settled down into the grass.
    Ripley in the Grass.

    I don’t want to dwell on the details of his passing. I might have more I want to say later. I’m just grateful we were both with him. With us there to give him what comfort we could, he passed quietly at the end.

    Related Content

    Meet Mr. Ripley, 2008-04-14

    Native New Yorkers: My Garden’s NYC-Native Plant Checklist

    This is a checklist of just the plant species native to New York City I’m growing in my garden. I’m posting this for the benefit of anyone attending the NYC Wildflower Week tour of my garden, Friday, May 15, from 1-3pm. It may also be of interest to those who attended Tuesday night’s meeting of the Long Island Botanical Society. I only had time during that talk – Place, Purpose, Plants: Urban Gardening with Native Plants – to highlight a handful of plants I’m growing.

    Visitors are also going to get to witness a rare treat: “My little bees”, Colletes thoracicus, are actively nest-building in the garden right now. Most years, they would be finished by now, not to be seen until April of the next year. If we’re lucky, we will also get to see the Nomada sp. cuckoo bees I just noticed in my garden for the first time this year.

    Adiantum pedatum, Maidenhair Fern, Pteridaceae
    Ageratina altissima, white snakeroot, Asteraceae
    Allium tricoccum, ramps, Liliaceae
    Andropogon gerardii, NYC-local ecotype, Big Bluestem, Poaceae
    Andropogon virginicus, Broom Sedge, Poaceae
    Anemone canadensis, Canadian anemone, Ranunculaceae
    Angelica atropurpurea, purplestem angelica, great angelica, American angelica, high angelica, masterwort, Apiaceae
    Antennaria plantaginifolia, plantain-leaved pussytoes, Asteraceae
    Aquilegia canadensis ‘Little Lanterns’, Eastern red columbine, Ranunculaceae
    Aquilegia canadensis, Eastern red columbine, Ranunculaceae
    Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, bearberry, Ericaceae
    Arisaema triphyllum, Jack in the pulpit, Araceae
    Asarum canadense, Canadian wild ginger, Aristolochiaceae
    Asclepias incarnata, NYC-local ecotype, swamp milkweed, Apocynaceae
    Asclepias syriaca, NYC-local ecotype, Common Milk Weed, Apocynaceae
    Asclepias tuberosa, NYC-local ecotype, Butterfly Weed, Apocynaceae
    Athyrium filix-femina ‘Lady in Red’, ladyfern, Dryopteridaceae
    Baptisia tinctoria, NYC-local ecotype, False Indigo, Fabaceae
    Carex laxiculmis ‘Bunny Blue’, spreading sedge, Cyperaceae
    Carex pensylvanica, Pennsylvania sedge, Cyperaceae
    Caulophyllum thalictroides, blue cohosh, Berberidaceae
    Chelone glabra, white turtlehead, Scrophulariaceae
    Chrysopsis mariana, NYC-local ecotype, Maryland Goldenaster, Asteraceae
    Claytonia virginica, Virginia springbeauty, Portulacaceae
    Clematis virginiana, virgin’s bower, devil’s darning needles, Ranunculaceae
    Cunila origanoides, NYC-local ecotype, common dittany, Lamiaceae
    Dichanthelium clandestinum, NYC-local ecotype, Deer Tongue, Poaceae
    Elymus hystrix, NYC-local ecotype, eastern bottlebrush grass, Poaceae
    Equisetum hyemale var. affine, scouring rush, Equisetaceae
    Eragrostis spectabilis, Purple Lovegrass, Poaceae
    Euthamia caroliniana, Slender Goldentop, Asteraceae
    Eutrochium maculatum, NYC-local ecotype, spotted joe pye weed, Asteraceae
    Fragaria virginiana, Virginia strawberry, Rosaceae
    Gentiana andrewsii, Andrews bottle gentian, Gentianaceae
    Geranium maculatum ‘Espresso’, spotted geranium, Geraniaceae
    Geranium maculatum, spotted geranium, Geraniaceae
    Helenium autumnale, NYC-local ecotype, sneezeweed, Asteraceae
    Heliopsis helianthoides, smooth oxeye, Asteraceae
    Hydrophyllum virginianum, eastern waterleaf, Hydrophyllaceae
    Ilex verticillata ‘Southern Gentleman’, winterberry, male, Aquifoliaceae
    Ilex verticillata ‘Winter Red’, winterberry, female, Aquifoliaceae
    Ionactis linariifolius, Stiff Aster, Asteraceae
    Juncus effusus, NYC-local ecotype, common rush, Juncaceae
    Juncus tenuis, Path rush, Juncaceae
    Krigia biflora, Two-Flower Cynthia, two-flowered dwarf dandelion, Asteraceae
    Lespedeza capitata, Round-headed Bush Clover, Fabaceae
    Lilium superbum, Turk’s Cap Lily, Liliaceae
    Lobelia cardinalis, cardinal flower, Campanulaceae
    Lobelia inflata, indian tobacco, puke weed, Campanulaceae
    Lobelia siphilitica, great blue lobelia, Campanulaceae
    Lonicera sempervirens, NJ-local ecotype, trumpet honeysuckle, Caprifoliaceae
    Monarda fistulosa, NYC-local ecotype, wild bergamot, Lamiaceae
    Oenothera biennis, common evening-primrose, Onagraceae
    Onoclea sensibilis, sensitive fern, Dryopteridaceae
    Opuntia humifusa, Eastern Prickly Pear, Cactaceae
    Osmunda cinnamonea, cinnamon fern, Osmundaceae
    Osmunda regalis, royal fern, Osmundaceae
    Oxalis stricta, upright yellow wood-sorrel, Oxalidaceae
    Packera aurea, golden ragwort, Asteraceae
    Packera obovata, round-leaved ragwort, Asteraceae
    Panicum virgatum ‘Cloud Nine’, switchgrass, Poaceae
    Panicum virgatum, NYC-local ecotype, switchgrass, Poaceae
    Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Virgina creeper, Vitaceae (Grape Family)
    Penstemon digitalis, NYC-local ecotype, talus slope penstemon, tall white beardtongue, Scrophulariaceae
    Phlox subulata, Moss Phlox, Polemoniaceae
    Podophyllum peltatum, mayapple, Berberidaceae
    Polygonatum biflorum, smooth Solomon’s seal, Ruscaceae
    Polystichum acrostichoides, Christmas fern, Dryopteridaceae
    Prunus maritima, beach plum, Rosaceae
    Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium, Sweet Everlasting, Asteraceae
    Pycnanthemum muticum, NYC-local ecotype, clustered mountain-mint, short-toothed mountain-mint, Lamiaceae
    Pycnanthemum tenuifolium, Slender-leaved Mountain Mint, Lamiaceae
    Pycnanthemum virginianum, NYC-local ecotype, Virginia Mountain Mint, Lamiaceae
    Rhexia virginica, Virginia meadow-beauty, Melastomataceae
    Rhododendron periclymenoides, pinxterbloom azalea, Ericaceae
    Rhododendron viscosum, Swamp Azalea, Ericaceae
    Rosa virginiana, Virginia rose, prairie rose, Rosaceae
    Rudbeckia laciniata, cut-leaved coneflower, tall coneflower, Asteraceae
    Saururus cernuus, lizard’s tail, Saururaceae
    Schizachyrium scoparium, Little Bluestem, Poaceae
    Solidago caesia, NYC-local ecotype, blue-stemmed goldenrod, Asteraceae
    Solidago juncea, NYC-local ecotype, early goldenrod, Asteraceae
    Symphyotrichum novae-angliae ‘Chilly Winds’, New England aster, Asteraceae
    Thalictrum pubescens, NYC-local ecotype, tall meadow-rue, king of the meadow, Ranunculaceae
    Thalictrum thalictroides, rue anemone, Ranunculaceae
    Thelypteris noveboracensis, NYC-local ecotype, New York fern, Thelypteridaceae
    Thelypteris noveboracensis, unknown provenance, New York fern, Thelypteridaceae
    Thelypteris palustris, marsh fern, Thelypteridaceae
    Trillium erectum, red trillium, Liliaceae
    Vaccinium angustifolium, lowbush blueberry, Ericaceae
    Vaccinium corymbosum, multiple cultivars, highbush blueberry, Ericaceae
    Verbena hastata, Blue Vervain, Verbenaceae
    Vernonia noveboracensis, New York ironweed, Asteraceae
    Veronicastrum virginicum, Culver’s root, Scrophulariaceae
    Viburnum dentatum, southern arrowwood, Caprifoliaceae
    Viola lanceolata, Bog White Violet, Violaceae
    Viola sororia, common blue violet, Violaceae
    Zizia aurea, golden alexander, Apiaceae

    About this list:

    • This isn’t all of the “native” plants visitors will see in my garden. I have half again as many eastern North American species that are not native to NYC. 
    • This list doesn’t include any plants I’ve acquired this year; I don’t “count” anything until it’s survived a year of my gardening.
    • My most treasured plants are those listed as “NYC-local ecotypes.” These have been propagated by the NYC Parks’ Greenbelt Native Plant Center from populations in and around New York City.

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